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Students are expected to abide by the highest standards of honesty and originality in their academic work.
No student is permitted to use any books, notes, papers, or electronic devices during an in-class examination except with the express permission of the instructor. Sharing of study materials, exchange of information, collaboration or communication of any kind during an in-class examination is not permitted and unless otherwise stated clearly in the examination instructions, is not permitted during a take-home examination. For violation of the examination rules or dishonesty in an examination, a student is subject to disciplinary action.
All work submitted by a student for any academic or nonacademic exercise is expected to be the student’s own work. In the preparation of their work, students should always take great care to distinguish their own ideas and knowledge from information derived from sources. The term “sources” includes not only published or computer-accessed primary and secondary material, but also information and opinions gained directly from other people.
The responsibility for learning the proper forms of citation lies with the individual student. Quotations must be properly placed within quotation marks and must be fully cited. In addition, all paraphrased material must be completely acknowledged. Whenever ideas or facts are derived from a student’s reading and research, the sources must be indicated. In order to understand the requirement of and process for acknowledging all sources, students should familiarize themselves with the information in the Harvard Guide to Using Sources.
The amount of collaboration with others that is permitted in the completion of work can vary, depending upon the policy set by the instructor or the supervisor of a particular exercise. Students should assume that collaboration in the completion of work is prohibited, unless explicitly permitted, and students should acknowledge any collaboration and its extent in all submitted work.
Students who are in any doubt about the preparation of their work should consult the appropriate instructor, supervisor, or administrator before it is prepared or submitted.
Students who submit work without clear attribution of all sources, even if inadvertently, will be subject to disciplinary action.
Occasionally students seek to submit one paper for two or more courses or seminars. In such cases, the paper must be of sufficiently greater scope or depth to warrant such multiple credit. The instructors involved should discuss appropriate ways to make sure that the submitted work meets this greater burden.
In order to assure compliance with this requirement, any student planning to submit the same or similar written work in more than one academic offering must first get the approval of the Dean for Faculty and Academic Affairs by submitting a memo that documents the project plan. This memo must be signed by the instructors for both courses and must set forth the way in which the paper will meet the added requirement described in the preceding paragraph. Once the Dean for Faculty and Academic Affairs approves the project, the memo must then be submitted to the Registrar's Office before the student is accorded the requested credits. This rule applies to submission of work in any offering whether at the Law School or elsewhere. A student who submits the same, or substantially the same, work in more than one course without such prior permission, will be subject to disciplinary action.
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