Biographies of conference participants
United States Senator
Senator Jeff Bingaman was born on October 3, 1943, and was raised in Silver City, New Mexico. The son of educators, Bingaman attended Silver City public schools.
After graduating from Western High School (now Silver High) in 1961, Bingaman attended Harvard University and earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in government in 1965. He then entered the Stanford University School of Law, graduating in 1968. Bingaman served in the Army Reserves from 1968 to 1974.
After one year as New Mexico Assistant Attorney General and eight years in private law practice, Bingaman was elected Attorney General of New Mexico in 1978, and in 1982 he was elected to the U.S. Senate.
Bingaman is married to Anne Kovacovich Bingaman. They have one son, John. Ms. Bingaman, a Stanford graduate and longtime New Mexico attorney, works in the private sector.
Natural Resources Defense Council
Dale Bryk is a Senior Attorney with the Natural Resources Defense Council, where she heads up the organization's state climate policy work. Her expertise is in the area of state energy and climate policy, including utility regulation, energy efficiency and renewable energy programs, greenhouse gas emission registries and regulation, emissions trading, green building and smart growth. Dale joined NRDC in 1997, prior to which she practiced corporate law at Davis Polk & Wardwell in New York. Since 2002, she has also taught the Environmental Protection Clinic at Yale Law School. Dale has a J.D. from Harvard Law School, a Masters Degree in international law and policy from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy and a B.A from Colgate University.
Associate Dean and Professor of Law
UCLA School of Law
Co-Director, Frank G. Wells Environmental Law Clinic
University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law
Ann Carlson is the Academic Associate Dean and Professor of Law at UCLA School of Law. She teaches property and environmental law, co-directs the Frank G. Wells Environmental Law Clinic and is a founding faculty member of the Public Interest Law and Policy Program. Her scholarship in environmental law focuses on important constitutional questions affecting environmental law and policy, including standing, federalism and preemption, as well as on the role social norms play in affecting environmentally cooperative behavior. She also edits the Southern California Environmental Report Card, published by UCLA's Institute of the Environment. Professor Carlson's article Takings on the Ground was selected in 2003 by the Land Use and Environmental Law Review as one of the ten best recently-published articles in the country. Prior to joining the faculty in 1994, Carlson practiced law for Hall & Phillips, specializing in public interest, environmental and consumer litigation. She was also employed in various offices of the California state government, including the California Senate Office of Research and the Senate Revenue and Taxation Committee. Professor Carlson received her B.A. magna cum laude from UC Santa Barbara in 1982 and her J.D. magna cum laude from Harvard Law School.
Senior Attorney and Co-Director
Natural Resources Defense Council's Energy Program
Ralph Cavanagh is a senior attorney and co-director of NRDC's energy program, which he joined in 1979. In addition, Ralph has been a Visiting Professor of Law at Stanford and UC Berkeley (Boalt Hall), and from 1993-2003 he served as a member of the U.S. Secretary of Energy's Advisory Board. His current board memberships include the Bonneville Environmental Foundation, the Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies, the Renewable Northwest Project, and the Northwest Energy Coalition. He is a member of the National Commission on Energy Policy, which the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation established in 2002. Ralph has received the Heinz Award for Public Policy, the Bonneville Power Administration's Award for Exceptional Public Service, the Yale Law School's Preiskel-Silverman Fellowship, and the Lifetime Achievement in Energy Efficiency Award from California's Flex Your Power Campaign. He is a graduate of Yale College and the Yale Law School. He is married to Deborah Rhode, who is the MacFarland Professor of Law at Stanford Law School.
U.S. Climate Change Technology Program
U.S. Department of Energy
David Conover is the Director of the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP). Director Conover was appointed by the Secretary of Energy to lead the CCTP in January 2003. In carrying out the research coordination functions of the multi-agency CCTP, Director Conover serves under the auspices of the Cabinet-level Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI), established by the President on February 14, 2002, and takes technical direction from the Under Secretary for Energy, Science and Environment, U.S. Department of Energy. Previous to this assignment, Director Conover was Minority Staff Director & Chief Counsel of the U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee. Earlier, Mr. Conover was with CH2M-Hill and has extensive experience in the environmental law and management fields. He holds a J.D. from the Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. from the University of Virginia.
Natural Resources Defense Council's Climate Center
David Doniger is policy director of the Natural Resources Defense Council's (NRDC) Climate Center, where he helps to develop environmental and energy policies that reduce the threat of global warming and enhance America's energy security. David rejoined NRDC in March 2001 after serving for eight years in the Clinton administration, where he was director of climate change policy at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and, before that, counsel to the head of the EPA's clean air program. He also served for a year at the Council on Environmental Quality. David helped to write the McCain-Lieberman Climate Stewardship Act as well as the Clean Power Act, sponsored by Senators Jeffords, Collins, and Lieberman. David heads a legal committee providing advice to the environmental coalition working for implementation of California's clean car law (AB 1493). He also directs NRDC's efforts to complete the phase-out of ozone-depleting chemicals under the Montreal Protocol. David first began at NRDC in 1978 and worked on clean air issues for the next 14 years, helping to win the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments and the 1987 Montreal Protocol. David holds a law degree and a master's degree in city and regional planning from the University of California at Berkeley and a B.A. in history from Yale University.
Professor of Law
University of Arizona
James E. Rogers College of Law
Kirsten Engel is a professor of law at the University of Arizona James E. Rogers College of Law, where she currently teaches property law. From 2001 through 2004, Professor Engel served as Senior Counsel for the Public Protection Bureau in the Massachusetts Office of Attorney General. Prior to that, she served as Acting Chief of the Environmental Protection Division in the Attorney General's office. Professor Engel's recent publications include Regional Cooperation in Mitigating Global Climate Change, __ N. Y. U. Envtl. L. J. ___ (forthcoming 2005) and Subglobal Regulation of the Global Commons: The Case of Climate Change, 32 Ecology L. Q. 183 (2005) (co-author, with Scott R. Saleska). She is a member of Arizona Governor Janet Napolitano's Climate Change Advisory Group and is on the University of Arizona Board of Directors for the Tulane Environmental Law Clinic. Professor Engel won the Sumter Marks Award for Scholarship from Tulane Law School in 2000.
Professor Engel began her legal career first as a staff attorney in the Office of the General Counsel for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and then as a staff attorney for the Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund. She received her B.A. magna cum laude from Brown University and her J.D. from Northwestern University School of Law.
Massachusetts Office for Commonwealth Development
When Mitt Romney became Governor of Massachusetts in January 2003, he appointed Douglas I. Foy to serve in his Cabinet as the first secretary of the newly created Office for Commonwealth Development (OCD). The Governor charged Mr. Foy with overseeing and coordinating the Executive Office of Environmental Affairs, the Executive Office of Transportation, the Department of Housing and Community Development and the Department of Energy Resources. Governor Romney's goal in creating OCD was to bring coordination to the state agencies most directly responsible for development and environment so that Massachusetts can develop wisely, in a sustainable way. Secretary Foy is leading that effort. In his capacity as OCD Secretary, Mr. Foy also serves as the Chairman of the legislatively created 12-member Commonwealth Development Coordinating Council.
Prior to his service in the Romney Administration, Mr. Foy served for 25 years as President of the Conservation Law Foundation (CLF). During his tenure at CLF, Mr. Foy fought to conserve natural resources, protect public health and promote vital, livable communities throughout New England. Under his leadership, CLF filed the lawsuit that forced the clean-up of Boston Harbor, protected Georges Bank from oil and gas drilling and banned off-road vehicles from the Cape Cod National Seashore. While at CLF, Mr. Foy also made strides to protect the fisheries, reduce power plant emissions and clean up contaminated brownfield sites. In 1992, President George H. W. Bush recognized Foy's work at CLF on energy efficiency by awarding the organization with the President's Environmental and Conservation Challenge Award, the nation's highest conservation award. In 2005, Mr. Foy was named the recipient of the Woodrow Wilson Award for Public Service, in recognition of his work as an environmental leader and as head of the state agency coordinating more sustainable development in Massachusetts. Mr. Foy was a member of the 1968 USA Olympic Rowing Team and the 1969 USA National Rowing Team. He received his bachelor's from Princeton University, was a Churchill Scholar in Geophysics at Cambridge University in England, and received his J.D. from Harvard Law School.
Professor of Law
Harvard Law School
Professor Freeman teaches Administrative Law, Environmental Law, and Natural Resources Law. Her scholarship in administrative law focuses generally on public-private collaboration in governance. Her work in this field encompasses governance theory, dispute resolution, regulatory innovation, and privatization. Her work in environmental law focuses on questions of institutional design, including governance institutions and regulatory tools. Her most recent articles concerns the mechanisms by which Congress oversees power delegated to environmental agencies, and the effect of inter-agency lobbying on executive branch decision making. Freeman is currently working on two forthcoming books. The first, with Charles Kolstad, evaluates the relative advantages of market mechanisms of environmental regulation over traditional command and control measures. The second, with Martha Minow, explores the implications for American governance of widespread private contracting for public services. Professor Freeman also co-authors a leading casebook in environmental law.
In 2001, Professor Freeman’s article, The Private Role in Public Governance, received the annual scholarship award from the American Bar Association's Section on Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice for the single best article in the nation on administrative law. In 2004, her article on congressional oversight of the endangered species act, The Congressional Competition to Control Delegated Power (with DeShazo) was selected as one of the top 10 articles of the year by the Land Use and Environmental Law Review. Freeman’s other articles include The Contracting State, Regulatory Negotiation and the Legitimacy Benefit (with Langbein), and Collaborative Governance in the Administrative State. Modular Environmental Regulation (with Farber) and Public Agencies as Lobbyists (with DeShazo).
Prior to joining HLS, Professor Freeman taught for 10 years at UCLA where she was named Professor of the Year by UCLA's Class of 2001. In 2004, she received the UCLA law school's Rutter Award for excellence in teaching. She continues to be a Fellow of the Evan Frankel Environmental Law and Policy Program at UCLA, which she helped to found.
Professor Freeman serves as Vice-Chair of the ABA Administrative Law Section sub-committees on both Dispute Resolution and Environmental Law and Natural Resources. She is Chair of the AALS Executive Committee on Administrative Law for 2006.
National Commission on Energy Policy
Jason Grumet was appointed Executive Director of the National Commission on Energy Policy in January 2002. In this capacity, Jason helped design the organization, recruit Commission members and open the Commission's office in Washington D.C. In concert with Commission Co-Chairs, Jason oversees the organization's strategic direction, technical analysis, policy development and advocacy. The Commission work is supported by a ten member staff. The Commission released its final report in December 2004 and spent 2005 advocating for its recommendations. Prior to joining the Commission, Jason served as Executive Director of Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM). He received a B.A. in Environmental Studies from Brown University and a J.D. from Harvard University. Jason lives with his wife Stephanie and daughters Isabella and Julia in Washington, D.C.
Senior Vice President
Environment Group Head
NERA Economic Consulting
David Harrison heads the global Environment Group for NERA Economic Consulting. He directs projects in environmental economics and policy, climate change, natural resource damage assessment, energy policy, economic impact assessment, and transportation. Dr. Harrison has evaluated the costs and benefits of air quality regulations affecting a large number of sectors, including electricity, automobile, trucking, marine, chemical, iron and steel, petroleum, pulp and paper, small utility engines, small handheld equipment, construction equipment, and others.
Dr. Harrison also has participated actively for more than 25 years in the development of emissions trading programs and other innovative means of increasing the flexibility and reducing the costs of environmental regulation. He was a member of the advisory committee for the RECLAIM program, an innovative emissions trading program in the Los Angeles air basin, and has advised on numerous other programs including the acid rain trading program for electricity generators and the averaging, banking, and trading programs developed for mobile sources.
Most recently, Dr. Harrison has led NERA efforts to assist the European Commission and various European governments with regard to the forthcoming European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) for carbon dioxide. He co-authored a major study for the Commission on the initial allocation of allowances under the EU ETS and has consulted frequently to the OECD on the use of emissions trading to deal with climate change. Dr. Harrison and NERA colleagues currently are assisting the UK government in the development of their National Allocation Plan for the EU ETS. He also has directed numerous projects for individual companies and trade associations -- in the US, Europe, and Japan -- to assess ways that these entities might take advantage of the flexibility and cost savings from emissions trading, particularly with regard to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Dr. Harrison has written and lectured frequently on these innovative programs in the US and at numerous international events.
Before joining NERA, Dr. Harrison was an Associate Professor at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, where he taught energy and environmental economics and policy, microeconomics, regional development, and other courses for more than a decade. He also served as a Senior Staff Economist on the US government's President's Council of Economic Advisors, where he had responsibility for environment and energy policy issues. He is the author or co-author of five books or monographs on environmental policy and numerous articles in professional journals.
Dr. Harrison received a PhD in economics from Harvard University, where he was a Graduate Prize Fellow. He holds a BA, magna cum laude, in economics from Harvard College, where he was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, and an MSc in economics from the London School of Economics, where he was the Rees Jeffreys Scholar.
Teresa and John Heinz Professor of Environmental Policy
John P. Holdren is the Teresa and John Heinz Professor of Environmental Policy at Harvard University. He is also Director of the Woods Hole Research Center and Director of the Program on Science, Technology, and Public Policy in the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the John F. Kennedy School of Government in Harvard University. Dr. Holdren co-founded in 1973 and co-led for 23 years the interdisciplinary graduate program in energy and resources at the University of California, Berkeley. His work has focused on causes and consequences of global environmental change, analysis of energy technologies and policies, ways to reduce the dangers from nuclear weapons and materials, and the interaction of content and process in science and technology policy.
He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Council on Foreign Relations, and in February 2005 he became the President-Elect of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. From 2002 until the present he has also been Co-Chair of the foundation-funded, bipartisan National Commission on Energy Policy. Dr. Holdren served as a member of President Clinton's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology from 1994 to 2001 and in that capacity led studies requested by the President on protection of nuclear-explosive materials, the U.S. fusion energy program, U.S. energy R&D strategy for the challenges of the 21st century, and international cooperation on energy. He was a member of the Board of Trustees of the MacArthur Foundation from 1991 to 2005 and Chair of the Committee on International Security and Arms Control of the National Academy of Sciences from 1993 through 2004.
He has been the recipient of a MacArthur Prize Fellowship (1981-86), the Tyler Prize for Environment (2000), and the John Heinz Prize for Public Policy (2001), among many other awards. In 1995 he gave the acceptance speech for the Nobel Peace Prize on behalf of the Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs (which he served as Chair of the Executive Committee from 1987 to 1997). Dr. Holdren holds degrees in engineering and plasma physics from MIT and Stanford.
Resources for the Future
William Pizer is a Fellow at Resources for the Future. Dr. Pizer's research seeks to quantify how various features of environmental policy and economic context, including uncertainty, individual and regional variation, technological change, irreversibility, spillovers, voluntary participation, and flexibility, influence a policy's efficacy. He applies much of this work to the question of how to design and implement policies to reduce the threat of climate change caused by manmade emissions of greenhouse gases. Recently, Dr. Pitzer's work has considered the influence of uncertainty on discounting, the advantages of price versus quantity regulation for pollutants that accumulate in the environment, and consequences of environmental regulation on firm performance. Currently, he is working on projects that look at the regional variation in household energy use, firm variation in pollution control costs, the effectiveness of voluntary programs, the role of technology programs in pollution control efforts, the relative efficiency of flexible performance standards and intensity targets, and the effectiveness of regional climate change policies. His recent publications include "Stimulating Technology to Slow Climate Change," in Raymond J. Kopp, Richard D. Morgenstern, Richard G. Newell, and William A. Pizer, New Approaches on Energy and the Environment: Policy Advice for the President (2004), and "Setting Energy Policy in the Modern Era: Tough Challenges Lie Ahead," in Resources, Winter 2005.
Since August 2002, Dr. Pizer has worked part-time as a Senior Economist at the National Commission on Energy Policy. During 2001-2002, he served as a Senior Economist at the President's Council of Economic Advisers where he worked on environment and climate change issues. He was a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University's Center for Environmental Science and Policy during 2000-2001, and taught at Johns Hopkins University during 1997-1999. Dr. Pizer has a B.A. in physics from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a Ph.D. and M.A. in economics from Harvard University.
Director, Environment & Energy Project
The Brookings Institution
David Sandalow is Director of the Environment & Energy Project at The Brookings Institution. His current research focuses on global warming and energy policy. Mr. Sandalow has served as Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans, Environment & Science; Senior Director for Environmental Affairs, National Security Council; Associate Director for the Global Environment, White House Council on Environmental Quality; and Executive Vice President, World Wildlife Fund-US. Mr. Sandalow's opinion pieces and articles have appeared in the New York Times, Washington Post, Washington Times, Financial Times, International Herald Tribune, Science and many other periodicals.
He has served as: Climate Change Coordinator for the Clinton Global Initiative; member of the American Bar Association (ABA) Standing Committee on Environmental Law; co-chair of the ABA's Annual Conference on Environmental Law; a member of the Sustainable Development Roundtable at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); and a Stimson Fellow at Yale University. He is a graduate of the University of Michigan Law School (JD 1982) and Yale College (BA Philosophy 1978).
Harvard University Center for the Environment
Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences
Daniel Schrag studies climate and climate change over the broadest range of Earth history. He has examined changes in ocean circulation over the last several decades, with particular attention to El Niño and the tropical Pacific. He has worked on theories for Pleistocene ice-age cycles including a better determination of ocean temperatures during the Last Glacial Maximum, 20,000 years ago. Professor Schrag has also developed the Snowball Earth hypothesis, proposing that a series of global glaciations occurred between 750 and 580 million years ago that may have led to the evolution of multicellular animals. He is currently working with economists and engineers on technological approaches to mitigating future climate change. Among various honors, Professor Schrag was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 2000. Professor Schrag came to Harvard in 1997 after teaching at Princeton, and studying at Berkeley and Yale.
Anne Smith is an expert in environmental policy assessment and in corporate environmental strategy development. Emissions trading is an area of particular expertise for Dr. Smith, including program design, analysis of market dynamics, and developing corporate strategies for responding to these new markets. Over the past fifteen years, Dr. Smith has prepared many analyses and papers on the costs and effectiveness of policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and she testified at the 2005 U.S. Senate Energy Committee hearings on the economics of alternative approaches to climate policy. In the past year, she has also assisted several utilities in developing reports to shareholders on climate change risks. She holds a B.A. in economics from Duke University, and a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University.
Albert Pratt Professor of Business and Government
Chairman, Environment and Natural Resources Faculty Group
John F. Kennedy School of Government
Director, Environmental Economics Program, Harvard University
Robert N. Stavins is the Albert Pratt Professor of Business and Government, Chairman of the Environment and Natural Resources Faculty Group at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, and Director of the Environmental Economics Program at Harvard University. He is a University Fellow of Resources for the Future, the Chair of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs, the Editor of the Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, and a Member of: the Board of Directors of Resources for the Future, the Board of Academic Advisors of the AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies, the Executive Board of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Science Advisory Board, the Editorial Boards of Resource and Energy Economics, Land Economics, Environmental Economics Abstracts, B.E. Journals of Economic Analysis & Policy, and Economic Issues. He is also a contributing editor of Environment.
He was formerly a member of the Editorial Board of The Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, the Board of Directors of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, a member and Chairman of the Environmental Economics Advisory Committee of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Science Advisory Board, and a member of the Executive Committee of the Harvard University Center for the Environment, and a Lead Author of the Second and Third Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Professor Stavins' research has focused on diverse areas of environmental economics and policy, including examinations of: policy instrument choice under uncertainty; competitiveness effects of regulation; design and implementation of market-based policy instruments; diffusion of pollution-control technologies; and depletion of forested wetlands. His current research includes analyses of: technology innovation; environmental benefit valuation; political economy of policy instrument choice; and econometric estimation of carbon sequestration costs. His research has appeared in the American Economic Review, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Journal of Economic Literature, Science, Nature, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Ecology Law Quarterly, Journal of Regulatory Economics, Journal of Urban Economics, Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Resource and Energy Economics, The Energy Journal, Energy Policy, Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, Explorations in Economic History, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, other scholarly and popular periodicals, and several books.
He is the editor of the fifth edition of Economics of the Environment (W. W. Norton, 2005), co-editor of Environmental Protection and the Social Responsibility of Firms (Resources for the Future, 2005), editor of The Political Economy of Environmental Regulation (Edward Elgar, 2004), co-editor of the second edition of Public Policies for Environmental Protection (Resources for the Future, 2000), and the author of Environmental Economics and Public Policy: Selected Papers of Robert N. Stavins, 1988-1999 (Edward Elgar, 2000). He holds a B.A. in philosophy from Northwestern University, an M.S. in agricultural economics from Cornell, and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard.
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer
Jeff Sterba is Chairman, President and CEO of PNM Resources, the parent company of PNM, Texas-New Mexico Power, First Choice Power and Avistar. Originally employed by PNM in 1977, he held a variety of positions until he left the company in 1998 to become Executive Vice President of USEC, a global energy company headquartered in Maryland. He returned to PNM as president in 2000. Mr. Sterba is active in national energy policy and is a leader in the utility industry. He serves as second vice chair of Edison Electric Institute and vice chair of the Electric Power Research Institute. He is also on the board of directors for the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. In New Mexico, Mr. Sterba is an active participant in community and economic development organizations. Mr. Sterba graduated summa cum laude with a degree in economics from Washington University in St. Louis. He has completed some PhD work in economics at the University of Chicago.