Law & Ethics of Art Restitution

The Liberation of St. Peter from Prison, attributed to Rembrandt van Rijn, 14.2 cm X 12.6 cm, pen and bistre on paper

The Liberation of St. Peter from Prison

St. Dorothy with the Christ Child, 1508, pen and ink. BM reg. no: 1949-4-11-98

Reinhold Niebuhr, Moral Man and Immoral Society, 1932

Explosion of restitution claims against US museums and collectors

Why?

Its a global market

US law is relatively open to restitution claims.

France

Most US states

Demand and refusal rule in NY

Statutes of Limitations

"Italian rule - immediate transfer"

"Italian rule - immediate transfer"

Other aspects of US law favoring restitution

US museums sensitive to public opinion

Ethical codes are not law

Code of Ethics for Museums [2000]

Context

Basic Situations

Nazi looted art

Before Napoleon: the right to plunder

Ex libris created by Maximilian for Palatina books

Horses of San Marco

Napoleonic plunder

1815 Congress of Vienna

The Lieber Code (1863)

Nazi Looting on Unprecedented Scale

World War II

London Declaration" of 5 January 1943

Future director of Metropolitan Museum, James Rorimer, overseeing removal of art from Neuschwanstein Castle

Nuremberg Trials

1954 Hague Convention

Washington Conference Principles on Nazi-Confiscated Art, December 3, 1998

Henri Matisse, Odalisque 1928

1954

Slide 38

Odalisque

The Lost Museum - 1995

Odalisque

Odalisque

Knoedler Gallery negotiates

Slide 44

Slide 45

Vincent Van Gogh, View of the Asylum and Chapel of Saint-Remy (1889) oil on canvas

View of the Asylum and Chapel of Saint-Remy

View of the Asylum and Chapel of Saint-Remy

View of the Asylum and Chapel of Saint-Remy

View of the Asylum and Chapel of Saint-Remy

View of the Asylum and Chapel of Saint-Remy

View of the Asylum and Chapel of Saint-Remy

Vincent Van Gogh, View of the Asylum and Chapel of Saint-Remy

Gustave Klimt, Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (1907) oil and gold on canvas

Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer

Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer

Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer

Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer

Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer

Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer

Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer

Maria Altmann and Adele

Nazi Looted Art

Colonial Plunder

Colonization

Colonial plunder

Decolonization

Cultural nationalism

Repatriation

Iconic antiquities

Rationales for retention

Declaration on the Importance & Value of Universal Museums

Rationales for restitution

Human remains or sacred objects of indigenous peoples

"Claiming objects taken 200 years..."

Major-General Horatio Gordon Robley (18401930) Soldier, artist, collector

"People used to be property"

Glasgow Ghost Shirt

AAMD Report on the Acquisition and Stewardship of Sacred Objects (2006)

Illicit excavation of antiquities

Illicit trade in antiquities

Growth in Illicit Antiquities Market

Umma, Iraq (2003)

Illicit trade in antiquities

Antiquities looting

How to control?

ICOM RECOMMENDATIONS (Ethics of Acquisitions, 1970)

The University of Pennsylvania Museum - April 1, 1970

US Cultural Property Implementation Act (CPIA)

Paul Bator, Goals for a Licit Trade in Cultural Objects (1983)

Illicit trade continues

2004 AAMD Acquisitions Guidelines

US v An Antique Platter of Gold

US v Schultz

Current situation

Italian sting

Vibia Sabina

Indianapolis moratorium

2008 AAM Standards Regarding Archaeological Material &Ancient Art

2008 AAM Standards Regarding Archaeological Material &Ancient Art

2008 AAM Standards Regarding Archaeological Material &Ancient Art

2008 AAM Standards Regarding Archaeological Material &Ancient Art

2008 AAM Standards Regarding Archaeological Material &Ancient Art

Codes in Alignment

Best practices

Interests