Legal Interests in Art in US & International Law

Harry S. Martin III

Henry N. Ess III Librarian & Professor of Law
Harvard Law School, Cambridge MA 02138 USA

Institut für deutsches und ausländisches Zivilprozessrecht Abt. 1
Gastprofessorenprogramm im Sommersemester 2008

Current Art Law News

Required reading

Recommended reading

Setting the scene: for contextual consideration

Exam due date changed to 4 July 2008 in Room 2413 [Institut für deutsches und ausländisches Zivilprozessrecht], not later than 12:00

Session 1 - Thursday, 12 June 2008, 16:00 - 18:00, Raum 2523/24 (Übungsraum des Instituts für Rechtsgeschichte, KG 2, 5. Stock)

Regulation of Artistic Expression

U. S. Const. amend. I

Piarowski v. Illinois Community College, 759 F.2d 625 (7th Cir. 1985)

Ken Paulson, Arts & Free Expression Overview

National Coalition Against Censorship, Art, Free Expression, and the Law

Government Funding of Controversial Art

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences v. City of New York , 64 F.Supp.2d 184 (E.D.N.Y. Nov 01, 1999) This case involved a major controversy over government withdrawal of support for controversial art at the Sensation Exhibit at the Brooklyn Museum. The Arts Journal maintains an extensive set of links here.

Richard Jensen, The Culture Wars, 1965-1995: A Historian's Map (revised version)

Julie Van Camp, Freedom of Expression at the National Endowment for the Arts, an excellent and detailed website that includes a full discussion of the famous case National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley, 524 U.S. 569 (1998).

Michael Rushton, Public Funding of Controversial Art, 24 J. Cult. Econ. 267-282 (November 2000)

Session 2 - Friday, 13 June 2008, 18:00 - 20:00, Raum 2523/24, KG 2, 5. Stock

Appropriation of Images

U.S. Const. art. I, § 8

17 U. S. C. §§ 101-103, 106-107

Peter B.Hirtle, Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States

University of Texas, Copyright Crash Course

Appropriation Art and Copies at the Patry Copyright Blog

The Bridgeman Art Library, Ltd. v. Corel Corp., 25 F. Supp. 2d 421 (S.D.N.Y. 1998)

Kenneth Hamma, Public Domain Art in an Age of Easier Mechanical Reproducibility, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 11, No. 11 ( November 2005)

Rogers v. Koons, 960 F.2d 301 (2d Cir. 1992)

Hoepker v. Kruger, 200 F.Supp.2d 340 (S.D.N.Y. 2002)

William M. Landes, The Arts and Humanities in Public Life: Copyright Protection and Appropriation Art; a more extended law and economic analysis can be found at William M. Landes, Copyright, Borrowed Images and Appropriation Art: An Economic Approach , (December 2000). University of Chicago Law & Economics, Olin Working Paper No. 113.


Leibovitz v. Paramount Pictures Corp., 137 F.3d 109 (2d Cir. 1998)

David Goldberg and Denise L. Bricker, That's Not Funny! - The Limitations on Parody as a Defense to Copyright Infringement in International Forums

Rights of Privacy & Publicity

Comedy III Productions, Inc. v. Gary Saderup, Inc., 25 Cal. 4th 387 (2001)

N.Y. Civil Rights Law §§50-51 or §§50 and 51

Nussenzweig v. DiCorcia, 2006 NY Slip Op 50171, February 8, 2006

Personality rights from Wikipedia

Session 3 - Monday, 16 June 2008, 18:00 - 20:00, Raum 2523/24, KG 2, 5. Stock

Moral Rights

Thomas F. Cotter, Pragmatism, Economics, and the Droit Moral , 76 N.C. L. Rev. 1 (1997)

Visual Artists Rights Act (VARA), 17 U. S. C. §§ 106, 106A, 107, and 113

Cynthia Esworthy, A Guide to the Visual Artists Rights Act

Martin v. City of Indianapolis, 192 F.3d 608 (7th Cir. 1999)

Carter v. Helmsley-Spear, Inc., 71 F. 3d 77 (2d Cir. 1995)

Phillips v. Pembroke Real Estate, Inc., 459 F.3d 128 (1st Cir. 2006)

Droit de Suite

Caslon Analytics, Droit de Suite

Directive 2001/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the resale right for the benefit of the author of an original work of art

Katy Graddy, Noah Horowitz and Stefan Szymanski, A study into the effect on the UK art market of the introduction of the artist’s resale right, January 2008

Session 4 - Tuesday, 17 June 2008, 18:00 - 20:00, Raum 2523/24, KG 2, 5. Stock

Recovery of Stolen Art

Aaron Milrad, selections from Artful Ownership

Limits on Ownership, Part One
Limits on Ownership, Part Two
Statutes of Limitation
The Discovery Rule

Steven A. Bibas, The Case Against Statutes of Limitations for Stolen Art, 103 Yale L. J. 2437 (1994)

Restitution of Nazi-Looted Art

Immunity from Seizure

In re Grand Jury Subpoena Duces Tecum Served on Museum of Modern Art, 93 N.Y.2d 729, 719 N.E.2d 897 , 697 N.Y.S.2d 538, (1999)

Molly Ann Torsen, National Reactions to Cultural Property Looting in Nazi Germany: A Window on Individual Effort and International Disarray, Elec.J. Comp.L., vol 9.4, December 2005

Howard N. Spiegler, Litigation against a Foreign Sovereign in the United States to Recover Artworks on Temporary Loan: The Malewicz Case , Juriste International, January 2007

Martha Lufkin, Whistling Past the Graveyard isn't Enough: US May Seek to Confiscate Painting Lent by Austrian Museum which Allegedly Knew it was Nazi Loot, 7 Art, Antiquity & L. 207 (2002)

'Nazi Looted Art': New Handbook Helps Descendents Reclaim Nazi Loot

Public Law on Cultural Objects, 22 U.S.C. § 2459 (1994)

Georgina Adam, "The Nazi bounty hunters," from the Art Newspaper, 30 November 2006

Trophy Art

Alexander Blankenagel, Eyes Wide Shut: Displaced Cultural Objects in Russian Law and Adjudication , 8 East Eur. Const. Rev. No. 4 (Fall 1999)

Jamey Gambrell, Displaced art - art seized from Nazi Germany by the Soviet Union after World War II , 83 Art in America (No. 9), September 1995  

Andrea Gattini, Restitution by Russia of Works of Art Removed from German Territory at the End of the Second World War , 7 Eur. J. Int'l L. 1-88 (1996)

Ekaterina Genieva, The Fate of Displaced Cultural Valuables in Russia: Different Approaches to One Problem , 50 Libri 217-220 (2000)

UNESCO, Draft Declaration of Principles Relating to Cultural Objects Displaced in Connection with the Second World War [The 28 UNESCO Member States voted on Friday, 9 March 2007 in favour of the adoption of the Draft Declaration, three States voted against and two States abstained.]


Elizabeth Simpson, The Spoils of War -World War II and Its Aftermath: The Loss, Reappearance and Recovery of Cultural Property (1997)

Spoils of War Newsletter, No. 4 (1997) Issue devoted to Russian Law on Cultural Valuables [German mirror site ]

Session 5 - Wednesday, 18 June 2008, 18:00 - 20:00, Raum 2523/24, KG 2, 5. Stock

Art Market

William G. Morrison, Economics and Economic Perceptions of the Art Market

Tyler Cowen, The Arts in a Market Economy, chapter 1 in In Praise of Commercial Culture (Cambridge,MA: Harvard U. Press, 1998)

New York Arts and Cultural Affairs Law , Article 12. Artist-art merchant relationships (SS 12.01-12.03) and Article 13. Express warranties (SS 13.01-13.07)

Ronald D. Spencer, How Decisions on the Authenticity of Visual Art are made by Courts

Kohler v. Hindman, 80 F.3d 1181 (7th Cir. 1996)


26 U. S. C. § 501 (c) (3)

26 U. S. C. § 4958

Intermediate Sanctions page from the Internal Revenue Service

John Henry Merryman, Museum Ethics, ALI-ABA Course of Study, Legal Issues in Museum Administration, March 29 - 31, 2006

Jane Morris, German museum under fire for ceding control of exhibitions to dealers and collectors, The Art Newspaper, Vol. XVII,No. 192, June 2008, p.1

Museum of Fine Arts v. Beland, 432 Mass. 540, 735 NE 2nd 1248 (2000)

American Association of Museums, Code of Ethics for Museums, especially the section on Collections

Association of Art Museum Directors, Good Governance and Non-profit Integrity (2006)

Association of Art Museum Directors, Art Museums, Private Collectors, and the Public Benefit (2002)

American Association of Museums, AAM Guidelines on Exhibiting Borrowed Objects

Session 6 - Thursday, 19 June 2008, 18:00 - 20:00, Raum 2523/24, KG 2, 5. Stock

Repatriation of Cultural Heritage

John Henry Merryman, Two Ways of Thinking About Cultural Property, 80 Am. J. Int'l L. 831-853 (1986)

Kwame Anthony Appiah, Whose Culture Is It? N. Y. Rev. Books , Vol. 53, No. 2 · February 9, 2006

Alexi Shannon Baker, Selling the Past: United States v. Frederick Schultz, April 22, 2002

U.S. v. Schultz, 333 F.3d 393 (2nd Cir. 2003)

Ildiko Pogany DeAngelis, How Much Provenance is Enough? Post- Schultz Guidelines for Art Museum Acquisition of Archeological Materials and Ancient Art

AAMD, Report on the Acquisition of Archaeological Materials and Ancient Art, June 2008

Review of Network in Archaeology

The Trial in Rome

The Return of the Mummy

Nefertiti Travels

The Guardian website devoted to the Elgin Marbles debate