Words and Phrases Defined
§100 Application of definitions
Unless the provision or context otherwise requires, these definitions govern the construction of this code.
"Action" includes a civil action and a criminal action.
§110 "Burden of producing evidence"
"Burden of producing evidence" means the obligation of a party to introduce evidence sufficient to avoid a ruling against him on the issue.
§115 "Burden of proof"
"Burden of proof" means the obligation of a party to establish by evidence a requisite degree of belief concerning a fact in the mind of the trier of fact or the court. The burden of proof may require a party to raise a reasonable doubt concerning the existence or nonexistence of a fact or that he establish the existence or nonexistence of a fact by a preponderance of the evidence, by clear and convincing proof, or by proof beyond a reasonable doubt.
Except as otherwise provided by law, the burden of proof requires proof by a preponderance of the evidence.
§120 "Civil action"
"Civil action" includes civil proceedings.
"Conduct" includes all active and passive behavior, both verbal and nonverbal.
§130 "Criminal action"
"Criminal action" includes criminal proceedings.
"Declarant" is a person who makes a statement.
"Evidence" means testimony, writings, material objects, or other things presented to the senses that are offered to prove the existence or nonexistence of a fact.
§145 "The hearing"
"The hearing" means the hearing at which a question under this code arises, and not some earlier or later hearing.
§150 "Hearsay evidence"
"Hearsay evidence" is defined in Section 1200.
"Law" includes constitutional, statutory, and decisional law.
"Oath" includes affirmation or declaration under penalty of perjury.
"Perceive" means to acquire knowledge through ones senses.
"Person" includes a natural person, firm, association, organization, partnership, business trust, corporation, limited liability company, or public entity.
§180 "Personal property"
"Personal property" includes money, goods, chattels, things in action, and evidences of debt.
"Property" includes both real and personal property.
"Proof" is the establishment by evidence of a requisite degree of belief concerning a fact in the mind of the trier of fact or the court.
§195 "Public employee"
"Public employee" means an officer, agent, or employee of a public entity.
§200 "Public entity"
"Public entity" includes a nation, state, county, city and county, city, district, public authority, public agency, or any other political subdivision or public corporation, whether foreign or domestic.
§205 "Real property"
"Real property" includes lands, tenements, and hereditaments.
§210 "Relevant evidence"
"Relevant evidence" means evidence, including evidence relevant to the credibility of a witness or hearsay declarant, having any tendency in reason to prove or disprove any disputed fact that is of consequence to the determination of the action.
"State" means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. In the latter case, it includes any state, district, commonwealth, territory, or insular possession of the United States.
"Statement" means (a) oral or written verbal expression or (b) nonverbal conduct of a person intended by him as a substitute for oral or written verbal expression.
"Statute" includes a treaty and a constitutional provision.
§235 "Trier of fact"
"Trier of fact" includes (a) the jury and (b) the court when the court is trying an issue of fact other than one relating to the admissibility of evidence.
§240 "Unavailable as a witness"
(a) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b), "unavailable as a witness" means that the declarant is any of the following:
(1) Exempted or precluded on the ground of privilege from testifying concerning the matter to which his or her statement is relevant.
(2) Disqualified from testifying to the matter.
(3) Dead or unable to attend or to testify at the hearing because of then existing physical or mental illness or infirmity.
(4) Absent from the hearing and the court is unable to compel his or her attendance by its process.
(5) Absent from the hearing and the proponent of his or her statement has exercised reasonable diligence but has been unable to procure his or her attendance by the courts process.
(b) A declarant is not unavailable as a witness if the exemption, preclusion, disqualification, death, inability, or absence of the declarant was brought about by the procurement or wrongdoing of the proponent of his or her statement for the purpose of preventing the declarant from attending or testifying.
(c) Expert testimony which establishes that physical or mental trauma resulting from an alleged crime has caused harm to a witness of sufficient severity that the witness is physically unable to testify or is unable to testify without suffering substantial trauma may constitute a sufficient showing of unavailability pursuant to paragraph (3) of subdivision (a). As used in this section, the term "expert" means a physician and surgeon, including a psychiatrist, or any person described by subdivision (b), (c), or (e) of Section 1010.
The introduction of evidence to establish the unavailability of a witness under this subdivision shall not be deemed procurement of unavailability, in absence of proof to the contrary.
"Writing" means handwriting, typewriting, printing, photostating, photographing, and every other means of recording upon any tangible thing any form of communication or representation, including letters, words, pictures, sounds, or symbols, or combinations thereof.
"Original" means the writing itself or any counterpart intended to have the same effect by a person executing or issuing it. An "original" of a photograph includes the negative or any print therefrom. If data are stored in a computer or similar device, any printout or other output readable by sight, shown to reflect the data accurately, is an "original."
A "duplicate" is a counterpart produced by the same impression as the original, or from the same matrix, or by means of photography, including enlargements and miniatures, or by mechanical or electronic rerecording, or by chemical reproduction, or by other equivalent technique which accurately reproduces the original.