Burden of Proof; Burden of Producing Evidence; Presumptions and Inferences
Chapter 1. Burden of Proof
Article 1. General
§500 Party who has the burden of proof
Except as otherwise provided by law, a party has the burden of proof as to each fact the existence or nonexistence of which is essential to the claim for relief or defense that he is asserting.
§501 Burden of proof in criminal action generally
Insofar as any statute, except Section 522, assigns the burden of proof in a criminal action, such statute is subject to Penal Code Section 1096.
§502 Instructions on burden of proof
The court on all proper occasions shall instruct the jury as to which party bears the burden of proof on each issue and as to whether that burden requires that a party raise a reasonable doubt concerning the existence or nonexistence of a fact or that he establish the existence or nonexistence of a fact by a preponderance of the evidence, by clear and convincing proof, or by proof beyond a reasonable doubt.
Article 2. Burden of Proof on Specific Issues
§520 Claim that person guilty of crime or wrongdoing
The party claiming that a person is guilty of crime or wrongdoing has the burden of proof on that issue.
§521 Claim that person did not exercise care
The party claiming that a person did not exercise a requisite degree of care has the burden of proof on that issue.
§522 Claim that person is or was insane
The party claiming that any person, including himself, is or was insane has the burden of proof on that issue.
§523 Claim regarding land patented or granted by state
In any action where the state is a party, regardless of who is the moving party, where (a) the boundary of land patented or otherwise granted by the state is in dispute, or (b) the validity of any state patent or grant dated prior to 1950 is in dispute, the state shall have the burden of proof on all issues relating to the historic locations of rivers, streams, and other water bodies and the authority of the state in issuing the patent or grant.
This section is not intended to nor shall it be construed to supersede existing statutes governing disputes where the state is a party and regarding title to real property.
Chapter 2. Burden of Producing Evidence
§550 Party who has the burden of producing evidence
(a) The burden of producing evidence as to a particular fact is on the party against whom a finding on that fact would be required in the absence of further evidence.
(b) The burden of producing evidence as to a particular fact is initially on the party with the burden of proof as to that fact.
Chapter 3. Presumptions and Inferences
Article 1. General
§600 Presumption and inference defined
(a) A presumption is an assumption of fact that the law requires to be made from another fact or group of facts found or otherwise established in the action. A presumption is not evidence.
(b) An inference is a deduction of fact that may logically and reasonably be drawn from another fact or group of facts found or otherwise established in the action.
§601 Classification of presumptions
A presumption is either conclusive or rebuttable. Every rebuttable presumption is either (a) a presumption affecting the burden of producing evidence or (b) a presumption affecting the burden of proof.
§602 Statute making one fact prima facie evidence of another fact
A statute providing that a fact or group of facts is prima facie evidence of another fact establishes a rebuttable presumption.
§603 Presumption affecting the burden of producing evidence defined
A presumption affecting the burden of producing evidence is a presumption established to implement no public policy other than to facilitate the determination of the particular action in which the presumption is applied.
§604 Effect of presumption affecting burden of producing evidence
The effect of a presumption affecting the burden of producing evidence is to require the trier of fact to assume the existence of the presumed fact unless and until evidence is introduced which would support a finding of its nonexistence, in which case the trier of fact shall determine the existence or nonexistence of the presumed fact from the evidence and without regard to the presumption. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent the drawing of any inference that may be appropriate.
§605 Presumption affecting the burden of proof defined
A presumption affecting the burden of proof is a presumption established to implement some public policy other than to facilitate the determination of the particular action in which the presumption is applied, such as the policy in favor of establishment of a parent and child relationship, the validity of marriage, the stability of titles to property, or the security of those who entrust themselves or their property to the administration of others.
§606 Effect of presumption affecting burden of proof
The effect of a presumption affecting the burden of proof is to impose upon the party against whom it operates the burden of proof as to the nonexistence of the presumed fact.
§607 Effect of certain presumptions in a criminal action
When a presumption affecting the burden of proof operates in a criminal action to establish presumptively any fact that is essential to the defendants guilt, the presumption operates only if the facts that give rise to the presumption to have been found or otherwise established beyond a reasonable doubt and, in such case, the defendant need only raise a reasonable doubt as to the existence of the presumed fact.
Article 2. Conclusive Presumptions
§620 Conclusive presumptions
The presumptions established by this article, and all other presumptions declared by law to be conclusive, are conclusive presumptions.
§622 Facts recited in written instrument
The facts recited in a written instrument are conclusively presumed to be true as between the parties thereto, or their successors in interest; but this rule does not apply to the recital of a consideration.
§623 Estoppel by own statement or conduct
Whenever a party has, by his own statement or conduct, intentionally and deliberately led another to believe a particular thing true and to act upon such belief, he is not, in any litigation arising out of such statement or conduct, permitted to contradict it.
Article 3. Presumptions Affecting the Burden of Producing Evidence
§630 Presumptions affecting the burden of producing evidence
The presumptions established by this article, and all other rebuttable presumptions established by law that fall within the criteria of Section 603, are presumptions affecting the burden of producing evidence.
§631 Money delivered by one to another
Money delivered by one to another is presumed to have been due to the latter.
§632 Thing delivered by one to another
A thing delivered by one to another is presumed to have belonged to the latter.
§633 Obligation delivered up to the debtor
An obligation delivered up to the debtor is presumed to have been paid.
§634 Person in possession of order on himself
A person in possession of an order on himself for the payment of money, or delivery of a thing, is presumed to have paid the money or delivered the thing accordingly.
§635 Obligation possessed by creditor
An obligation possessed by the creditor is presumed not to have been paid.
§636 Payment of earlier rent or installments
The payment of earlier rent or installments is presumed from a receipt for later rent or installments.
§637 Ownership of things possessed
The things which a person possesses are presumed to be owned by him.
§638 Ownership of property by person who exercises acts of ownership
A person who exercises acts of ownership over property is presumed to be the owner of it.
§639 Judgment correctly determines rights of parties
A judgment, when not conclusive, is presumed to correctly determine or set forth the rights of the parties, but there is no presumption that the facts essential to the judgment have been correctly determined.
§640 Writing truly dated
A writing is presumed to have been truly dated.
§641 Letter received in ordinary course of mail
A letter correctly addressed and properly mailed is presumed to have been received in the ordinary course of mail.
§642 Conveyance by person having duty to convey real property
A trustee or other person, whose duty it was to convey real property to a particular person, is presumed to have actually conveyed to him when such presumption is necessary to perfect title of such person or his successor in interest.
§643 Authenticity of ancient document
A deed or will or other writing purporting to create, terminate, or affect an interest in real or personal property is presumed to be authentic if it:
(a) Is at least 30 years old;
(b) Is in such condition as to create no suspicion concerning its authenticity;
(c) Was kept, or if found was found, in a place where such writing, if authentic, would be likely to be kept or found; and
(d) Has been generally acted upon as authentic by persons having an interest in the matter.
§644 Book purporting to be published by public authority
A book, purporting to be printed or published by public authority, is presumed to have been so printed or published.
§645 Book purporting to contain reports of cases
A book, purporting to contain reports of cases adjudged in the tribunals of the state or nation where the book is published, is presumed to contain correct reports of such cases.
§645.1 Printed materials purporting to be particular newspaper or periodical
Printed materials, purporting to be a particular newspaper or periodical, are presumed to be that newspaper or periodical if regularly issued at average intervals not exceeding three months.
§646 Res ipsa ioquitur; instruction
(a) As used in this section, "defendant" includes any party against whom the res ipsa loquitur presumption operates.
(b) The judicial doctrine of res ipsa loquitur is a presumption affecting the burden of producing evidence.
(c) If the evidence, or facts otherwise established, would support a res ipsa loquitur presumption and the defendant has introduced evidence which would support a finding that he was not negligent or that any negligence on his part was not a proximate cause of the occurrence, the court may, and upon request shall, instruct the jury to the effect that:
(1) If the facts which would give rise to a res ipsa loquitur presumption are found or otherwise established, the jury may draw the inference from such facts that a proximate cause of the occurrence was some negligent conduct on the part of the defendant; and
(2) The jury shall not find that a proximate cause of the occurrence was some negligent conduct on the part of the defendant unless the jury believes, after weighing all the evidence in the case and drawing such inferences therefrom as the jury believes are warranted, that it is more probable than not that the occurrence was caused by some negligent conduct on the part of the defendant.
§647 Return of process served by registered process server
The return of a process server registered pursuant to Chapter 16 (commencing with Section 22350) of Division 8 of the Business and Professions Code upon process or notice establishes a presumption, affecting the burden of producing evidence, of the facts stated in the return.
Article 4. Presumptions Affecting the Burden of Proof
§660 Presumptions affecting the burden of proof
The presumptions established by this article, and all other rebuttable presumptions established by law that fall within the criteria of Section 605, are presumptions affecting the burden of proof.
§662 Owner of legal title to property is owner of beneficial title
The owner of the legal title to property is presumed to be the owner of the full beneficial title. This presumption may be rebutted only by clear and convincing proof.
§663 Ceremonial marriage
A ceremonial marriage is presumed to be valid.
§664 Official duty regularly performed
It is presumed that official duty has been regularly performed. This presumption does not apply on an issue as to the lawfulness of an arrest if it is found or otherwise established that the arrest was made without a warrant.
§665 Ordinary consequences of voluntary act
A person is presumed to intend the ordinary consequences of his voluntary act. This presumption is inapplicable in a criminal action to establish the specific intent of the defendant where specific intent is an element of the crime charged.
§666 Judicial action lawful exercise of jurisdiction
Any court of this state or the United States, or any court of general jurisdiction in any other state or nation, or any judge of such a court, acting as such, is presumed to have acted in the lawful exercise of its jurisdiction. This presumption applies only when the act of the court or judge is under collateral attack.
§667 Death of person not heard from in five years
A person not heard from in five years is presumed to be dead.
§668 Unlawful intent
An unlawful intent is presumed from the doing of an unlawful act. This presumption is inapplicable in a criminal action to establish the specific intent of the defendant where specific intent is an element of the crime charged.
§669 Failure to exercise due care
(a) The failure of a person to exercise due care is presumed if:
(1) He violated a statute, ordinance, or regulation of a public entity;
(2) The violation proximately caused death or injury to person or property;
(3) The death or injury resulted from an occurrence of the nature which the statute, ordinance, or regulation was designed to prevent; and
(4) The person suffering the death or the injury to his person or property was one of the class of persons for whose protection the statute, ordinance, or regulation was adopted.
(b) This presumption may be rebutted by proof that:
(1) The person violating the statute, ordinance, or regulation did what might reasonably be expected of a person of ordinary prudence, acting under similar circumstances, who desired to comply with the law; or
(2) The person violating the statute, ordinance, or regulation was a child and exercised the degree of care ordinarily exercised by persons of his maturity, intelligence, and capacity under similar circumstances, but the presumption may not be rebutted by such proof if the violation occurred in the course of an activity normally engaged in only by adults and requiring adult qualifications.
§669.1 Standards of conduct for public employees; presumption of failure to exercise due care
A rule, policy, manual, or guideline of state or local government setting forth standards of conduct or guidelines for its employees in the conduct of their public employment shall not be considered a statute, ordinance, or regulation of that public entity within the meaning of Section 669, unless the rule, manual, policy, or guideline has been formally adopted as a statute, as an ordinance of a local governmental entity in this state empowered to adopt ordinances, or as a regulation by an agency of the state pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act (Chapter 3.5 (commencing with Section 11340) of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code), of by an agency of the United States government pursuant to the Federal Administrative Procedure Act (Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 5001) of Title 5 of the United States Code). This section affects only the presumption set forth in Section 669, and is not otherwise intended to affect the admissibility or inadmissibility of the rule, policy, manual, or guideline under other provisions of law.
§669.5 Ordinances limiting building permits or development of buildable lots for residential purposes; impact on supply of residential units; actions challenging validity
(a) Any ordinance enacted by the governing body of a city, county, or city and county which (1) directly limits, by number, the building permits that may be issued for residential construction or the buildable lots which may be developed for residential purposes, or (2) changes the standards of residential development on vacant land so that the governing bodys zoning is rendered in violation of Section 65913.1 of the Government Code is presumed to have an impact on the supply of residential units available in an area which includes territory outside the jurisdiction of the city, county, or city and county.
(b) With respect to any action which challenges the validity of an ordinance specified in subdivision (a) the city, county, or city and county enacting the ordinance shall bear the burden of proof that the ordinance is necessary for the protection of the public health, safety, or welfare of the population of the city, county, or city and county.
(c) This section does not apply to state and federal building code requirements or local ordinances which (1) impose a moratorium, to protect the public health and safety, on residential construction for a specified period of time, if, under the terms of the ordinance, the moratorium will cease when the public health or safety is no longer jeopardized by the construction, (2) create agricultural preserves under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 51200) of Part 1 of Division 1 of Title 5 of the Government Code, or (3) restrict the number of buildable parcels or designate lands within a zone for nonresidential uses in order to protect agricultural uses as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 51201 of the Government Code or open-space land as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 65560 of the Government Code.
(d) This section shall not apply to a voter approved ordinance adopted by referendum or initiative prior to the effective date of this section which (1) requires the city, county, or city and county to establish a population growth limit which represents its fair share of each years statewide population growth, or (2) which sets a growth rate of no more than the average population growth rate experienced by the state as a whole. Paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) does not apply to a voter approved ordinance adopted by referendum or initiative which exempts housing affordable to persons and families of low or moderate income, as defined in Section 50093 of the Health and Safety Code, or which otherwise provides low- and moderate-income housing sites equivalent to such an exemption.
§670 Payments by check
(a) In any dispute concerning payment by means of a check, a copy of the check produced in accordance with Section 1550 of the Evidence Code, together with the original bank statement that reflects payment of the check by the bank on which it was drawn or a copy thereof produced in the same manner, creates a presumption that the check has been paid.
(b) As used in this section:
(1) "Bank" means any person engaged in the business of banking and includes, in addition to a commercial bank, a savings and loan association, savings bank, or credit union.
(2) "Check" means a draft, other than a documentary draft, payable on demand and drawn on a bank, even though it is described by another term, such as "share draft" or "negotiable order of withdrawal."