27. Stavros Gadinis, Is Investor Protection the Top Priority of SEC Enforcement? Evidence From Actions Against Broker-Dealers, 1/2009.
Abstract: Recent financial collapses have focused policymakers’ attention on the financial industry. To date, empirical studies have concentrated on corporate issuer activity, such as securities offerings and class actions. This paper makes a first step in studying SEC enforcement against investment banks and brokerage houses. This study suggests that the SEC favors defendants associated with big (listed) firms compared to defendants associated with smaller firms through two channels. First, the SEC is more likely to choose administrative rather than court proceedings for big-firm defendants, controlling for types of violation and levels of harm to investors. Second, within administrative proceedings, big-firm employees are likely to receive lower sanctions, notably temporary or permanent bars from the industry. To explain this gap, the paper first investigates whether big-firm violations are qualitatively different from small firms’ violations, but finds no support for this. This paper instead finds tentative support for the hypothesis that SEC officials favor prospective employers, as big firms headquartered in desirable locations receive lower sanctions.